District Profile

History of Ayodhya

The city of Faizabad originally known as Fyzabad, is situated in Eastern India, in Uttar Pradesh State, on the bank of River Saryu, about 130 k.m. east of Lucknow. The city was founded by Ali Vardi Khan, nawab of Bengal (1676-1756) in 1730. The foundation of Faizabad was laid by Saadat Khan, the second Nawab of Awadh. His successor Shuja-ud-daula made it the capital of Awadh. Faizabad as a township, developed about 220 years ago. Safdar Jang, the second nawab of Avadh (1739-54), made it as his military headquarters. His successor Suja-ud-daula built a fort here. It was known as Chhota Calcutta, now the fort has ruined. He built the Chowk in 1765 and subsequently built the Anguribagh and Motibagh to the south of Faizabad and Asafbagh and Bulandbagh to the west of the city. During the reign of Shuja-ud-daula, Faizabad attained such a prosperity which it never saw again. The Nawabs graced Faziabad with several beautiful buildings, notable among them are the Gulab Bari, Moti Mahal and the tomb of Bahu Begum. Gulab Bari is a beautiful building of fine architecture, standing in a garden surrounded by a wall, approachable through two large gateways. These buildings are particularly interesting for their assimilative architectural styles.

Shuja-ud-daula's wife was the well known Bahu Begum, who married the Nawab in 1743 and continued to reside in Faizabad, her residence being the Moti-Mahal. Close by at Jawaharbagh lies her Maqbara, where she was buried after her death in 1816. It is considered to be one of the finest buildings of its kind in Avadh, which was built at the cost of three lakh rupees by her chief advisor Darab Ali Khan. A fine view of the city is obtainable from top of the begum's tomb. Bahu Begum was a woman of great distinction and rank, bearing dignity. Most of the Muslim buildings of Faizabad are attributed to her. From the date of Bahu Begum's death in 1815 till the annexation of Avadh, the city of Faizabad gradually fell into decay. The glory of Faizabad finally eclipsed with the shifting of capital from Faizabad to Lucknow by Nawab Asaf-ud-daula.Faizabad is a place of sugar refineries and mills for extracting oil from seeds. It is a market center for the produce of the surrounding area, including grain, oilseeds, cotton, and tobacco. A hydroelectric plant is located nearby. The ruins of the ancient town of Ajodhya, with the modern town standing nearby, are located across the river and form a part of Faizabad. Ayodhya, which is among the principal religious centers of India, is an important place of Hindu pilgrimage. Faizabad is a small developing city, here you can have fun of both the worlds of the town as well as the village if you go outside the city you will find lots of fields with plenty of crops.

Faizabad (now Ayodhya) was the headquarters of Faizabad district and Faizabad division until 6 November 2018, when the Uttar Pradesh cabinet headed by chief minister Hon’ble Yogi Adityanath approved the renaming of Faizabad district as Ayodhya, and the shifting of the administrative headquarters of the district to Ayodhya city.

Description of Agro-climatic zones and farming situations of the district

Farming situation analysis of the district. Ayodhya district falls under Eastern Plain Agro Climatic Zone(UP-9). Some of the special features of the district are :

Area : 2764 km2.

Tehsil : 5 (Sadar,Rudauli,Bikapur,Sohawal and Milkipur)

Blocks : 11 (Sohawal,Masodha,Purabazar,Mayabazar,Amaniganj,Milkipur,Haringtonganj,Bikapur,Tarun,Mawai and Rudauli)

Climate : Climate of the district is damp and humid. Annual average rainfall is 1067mm. The average temperature during summers is 32.C whereas in winters, the average temperature is around 16.C. The district is situated at a height of 90m from mean sea level.


The physiographic of the district is mostly plain. The district is devoid of any important mineral resource. The district has got domination of three types of soil viz., Loam, sandy Loam & Clay. The northern blocks are dominated by clay soil while the southern blocks have domination of sandy soil. Soil reaction varies around neutral from mildly acid to mildy alkaline and crops give good response to NPK fertilizers. Soil of the district is suitable for raising horticultural crops.

District Profile Data

Area : 2764 sq.km.

Lok Sabha Constituencies : Ayodhya, Milkipur, Bikapur and Rudauli

Vidhan Sabha Constituencies : Ayodhya, Bikapur, Goshaiganj, Milkupur, and Rudauli

Total Population : 24,70,996

Population Density : 890/km2

Male : 12,59,628

Female : 12,11,368

Ratio of Male to Female : 1000: 961

Literacy % : 58.7 %

Net Cultivated Area : 171000 ha.

Net Irrigated Area : 123970 ha (approx.)

Total Forest Area (Sq.Km.) : 3038 Ham

Annual Rainfall : 1067 (mm)

Gram Panchyat : 835

No. of Village: 1272

Description of Agro-climatic Zone & major agro ecological situations (based on soil and topography)

Particulars Farming System
AES-1 Productive plain land under canal and tubewell Irrigation
a Main branch + tube-well Specified farming i.e. rice, wheat/potato, Sugarcane, vegetables supported by Cow and buffaloes
b Minor canal + tube-well Sugarcane, Rice, Urd, Vegetables, Wheat, Gram + Mustard, Horticultural crops
AES-2 Productive plain land under tube-well irrigation Diversified farming i.e. Rice, Arhar, Sugarcane, Urd / Mung, Fodder crop, gram, Pea, toria with few cows and buffaloes
AES-3 Sodic land under canal + tube-well irrigation Rice, wheat/mustard, vegetable and other horticultural crops, and some other Crops are growing in pockets with few local Cows/buffaloes and goats
AES-4 Waterlogged under canal and tube-well irrigation Rice, late wheat, lentil, vegetables in certain Pockets, fodder crops and other horticultural trees with few cows and buffaloes
AES-5 Eroded cultivable land Rice, arhar + jowar + til, mung, maize, chari as fodder, wheat/barley, peas, lentil, vegetables and horticultural trees with few cows, buffaloes, goats and sheep
AES-6 Rainfed, eroded cultivable land and ravines Arhar + jowar, urd, maize, chari as fodder crops, millets, barley, pea, lentil mixed with Mustard kharif vegetables, fruits and other

Soil type

S.N. Major Soils (common names like red sandy loam deep soils (etc.,)* Percent (%) of total Area (‘000 ha)
1 Silty Loam soils 65 293.2
2 Silty Loam(Bhat) soils 30 135.3
3 Alluvial soils 5 22.5

Area, Production and Productivity of major crops cultivated in the district

S.N. Crop Area (ha) Production (Mt) Productivity (Qtl /ha)
1 Paddy 103896 272519 26.23
2 Jowar 1766 853 4.83
3 Maize (Kharif) 1452 966 6.65
4 Bajra 2 2 10
5 Wheat 108130 356244 32.95
6 Barley 156 418 26.79
7 Chick pea 1623 1490 9.18
8 Field pea 2431 2113 8.69
9 Pigeon pea 4661 2983 6.40
10 Lentil 2342 1739 7.43
11 Mustard/rai 3843 3024 7.87
12 Linseed 16 9 5.63
13 Urd 1563 847 5.42
14 Moong
15 Potato 2866 561280 195.84
16 Til 18 4 2.22

Production and productivity of livestock, Poultry, Fisheries etc. in the district

Category Population
Crossbred 327300
Indigenous 340103
Buffalo 225998
Crossbred 405
Indigenous 13526
Goats 147954
Pigs 10700
Crossbred 4569
Indigenous 35669
Hens 162345
Desi 2036

Category Area Production Productivity
Fish 95.70 492.85 5.15

Priority/thrust areas

Crop/Enterprise Thrust area
Cereal crops Replacement of indigenous varieties of cereal crop seeds through improved varieties.
Grain crops Use of INM, IPM, IDM, IWM in Kharif, Rabi & Zaid crops.
Diversification Introduction of diversified farming.
Forage crop Management of green fodder round the year for milch animals.
LSP Collection of Indian breeds of cow i.e. Gir, Sahiwal and Tharparkar
LSP Nutritional feeding management in dairy cattle.
Wasteland management Development of waste and watershed lands through various farming systems.
Women empowerment Improvements in socio-economic status of the farm-women through small cottage/house hold industries.
Rural youth/school drop-outs Introduction of vocational courses for the rural youth/school dropouts to generate their employment